Highlights Review conducted of RE mineral beneficiation using English and Chinese language sources. Of the 250 known RE minerals only bastnäsite, monazite and xenotime are extracted commercially. Flotation, using fatty acids or hydroxamates, is the primary separation process for RE minerals. Currently, optimal beneficiation
The flowsheet in Figure 1 shows diagrammatically the typical sequence of operations in the process plant. The various unit operations used for liberation and separation will be discussed in the following sections.